305 INTEREST AND OTHER CHARGES
The rate of interest, including commissions, premiums, fees and other charges, on any loan, or forbearance of any money, goods or credits regardless of maturity and whether secured or unsecured shall not be subject to any regulatory ceiling.
Rate of interest in the absence of stipulation. The rate of interest for the loan or forbearance of any money, goods or credits and the rate allowed in judgments, in the absence of expressed contract as to such rate of interest, shall be six percent (6%) per annum.
Escalation clause; when allowable. Parties to an agreement pertaining to a loan or forbearance of money, goods or credits may stipulate that the rate of interest agreed upon may be increased in the event that the applicable maximum rate of interest is increased by the Monetary Board: Provided, That such stipulation shall be valid only if there is also a stipulation in the agreement that the rate of interest agreed upon shall be reduced in the event that the applicable maximum rate of interest is reduced by law or by the Monetary Board: Provided, further, That the adjustment in the rate of interest agreed upon shall take effect on or after the effectivity of the increase or decrease in the maximum rate of interest.
Floating rates of interest. The rate of interest on a floating rate loan during each interest period shall be stated on the basis of Manila Reference Rates (MRRs), T-Bill Rates or other market based reference rates plus a margin as may be agreed upon by the parties.
The MRRs for various interest periods shall be determined and announced by the Bangko Sentral every week and shall be based on the weighted average of the interest rates paid during the immediately preceding week by the ten (10) KBs with the highest combined levels of outstanding deposit substitutes and time deposits, on promissory notes issued and time deposits received by such banks, of P100,000 and over per transaction account, with maturities corresponding to the interest periods for which such MRRs are being determined. Such rates and the composition of the sample KBs shall be reviewed and determined at the beginning of every calendar semester on the basis of the banks’ combined levels of outstanding deposit substitutes and time deposits as of 31 May or 30 November, as the case may be.
The rate of interest on floating rate loans existing and outstanding as of 23 December 1995 shall continue to be determined on the basis of the MRRs obtained in accordance with the provisions of the rules existing as of 01 January 1989: Provided, however, That the parties to such existing floating rate loan agreements are not precluded from amending or modifying their loan agreements by adopting a floating rate of interest determined on the basis of the TBR or other market based reference rates.
Where the loan agreement provides for a floating interest rate, the interest period, which shall be such period of time for which the rate of interest is fixed, shall be such period as may be agreed upon by the parties.
For the purpose of computing the MRRs, banks shall accomplish the report forms, RS Form 2D and Form 2E (BSP 5-17-34A).
Accrual of interest earned on loans and other credit accommodations. Accrual of interest earned on non-performing loans other credit accommodations shall not be allowed.
Accrued interest receivable shall be classified in accordance with their respective loan accounts and provided with Allowance for Uncollected Interest on Loans.
Method of computing interest. Banks may only charge interest based on the outstanding balance of a loan at the beginning of an interest period.
For a loan where principal is payable in installments, interest per installment period shall be calculated based on the outstanding balance of the loan at the beginning of each installment period.
Towards this end, all loan-related documents shall show repayment schedules in a manner consistent with this provision. Marketing materials and presentations shall likewise be consistent with this provision.
To enhance loan transaction transparency, Effective Interest Rate (EIR) calculation models illustrative of common loan features are presented in Appendix 97 for guidance. It is understood, however, that an EIR calculation model, founded on established principles of discounted cash flow analysis, for a loan should be based on the actual features thereof. A bank shall be solely responsible for the propriety and accuracy of its EIR calculation model. However, for purposes of determining compliance with this Section, the Bangko Sentral’s determination of the reasonableness and accuracy of an EIR calculation model prevails.